These Counties are situated on the west side of the Hudson River, and adjoining the state of New-Jersey, between 41 deg. 00 min. and 41 deg. 36 min. north latitude, and 2 deg. 07 min. and 3 deg. 0,3 min. east longitude from the city of Washington. Orange is bounded northerly by the counties of Sullivan and Ulster, Easterly by the counties of Dutchess And Putnam, southerly by the county of Rockland, and southwesterly by the state of New-Jersey and the Delaware River, which separates it from the state of Pennsylvania. Its area is about 760 square miles, or 486,500 acres. Rockland county is bounded northwesterly by the county of Orange, eastterly by the county of Westchester, and southwesterly by the state of New-Jersey. Its area is about 172 square miles, or 110,500 acres.
A considerable portion of these counties is rugged and mountainous. The Shawangunk mountains stretch across the western angle of the county of Orange. The central and northern parts of Orange are agreeably diversified with easy hills and wide rich valleys. In the southeastern part of Orange, and the northeastern of Rockland, are the elevated ranges of the Highlands of the Hudson: Among the most noted summits are Butter Hill, the Crow's Nest, and the Bare Mountain: The first of these is elevated 1520 feet above the level of the Hudson river. South of this range in the county of Rockland, the general surface is broken; but the valleys are rich, fertile, and extensive. The Agriculture of these counties is above mediocrity, and their dairies are celebrated for their excellence. Iron ore, of a superior quality, is found in large quantities, and much of it manufactured.
In the extreme western part of Orange, are the Delaware, Neversink, and Mongaup rivers; In the central is the Walkill and its tributaries: This stream rises in New-Jersey, and flows northerly into Ulster. The Shawangunk creek, a large branch of the Walkill, forms a part of the western boundary. In the eastern part is Murderer's creek, and the Otterkill, a large branch of the same stream. the ramapo river, a branch of the passaic of New-Jersey, rises in the southern part of Orange, and crosses the western part of Rockland county the Hackensack of New-Jersey, also, has its sources in the county of Rockland.
The celebrated fortress of West Point, and Forts Putnam, Montgomery, and Clinton, with Stoney Point and Dobb's Ferry, are within these counties, besides many other well known positions in the history of the revolution.
The county buildings for Orange are located at Goshen and Newburgh, half shire towns: the former is situated in the interior, and the latter very pleasantly on the banks of the Hudson. The county buildings for Rockland are located at Clarkstown. These counties form part of the second senatorial district; Orange the sixth, and Rockland A Part of The Second Congressional Districts. Orange elects three, and Rockland one member of assembly.
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